What moved the first person of the Soviet state
The head of state, a normal car will not go. He needs something special. Powerful, fast, comfortable. And most importantly — safe in case the assassination. In the Soviet Union to understand the importance of these items did not come immediately.
The misadventures of the father of the revolution
When the revolution agrohotel, Vladimir Lenin traveled to Petrograd streets on a Turcat-Mery, released in 1915. First car was the property of the eldest daughter of Nicholas II, Tatiana, and then went to the “inheritance” of Alexander Kerensky. In General, the biography of this “French” is rich. In 1917 he even drove. Moreover, from the court of Smolny. Encroached on him, the smugglers, but the vehicle was quickly found near the border with Finland.
After Turcat-Mery Lenin went to the Delaunay-Belleville 45, who also previously belonged to the Romanovs. But he did not long travel. Vladimir Ilyich made an attempt. And even though he was not injured, but the car after the shelling could not be restored.
The place Delaunay-Belleville took the Renault 40CV (also from the garage of the Royal family). In 1919, the car was stolen. Lenin was not injured and picked out a outdoor 55-horsepower Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. Before the coup, the car belonged to Mikhail Romanov, the brother of the deposed Emperor. This car was similar to the previous one. It was designed for mountain racing. And, accordingly, was narrow, did not differ much and comfort ate. But this guy was fast. According to historians, this car saved the life of Lenin after the assassination attempt by Fanny Kaplan. If the car wasn’t as fast, the father of the revolution would have died in transit from blood loss.
Then the Soviet Union had purchased as much as 73 long-wheelbase Rolls-Royce. On one such car and drove Lenin to the death.
American tastes of Stalin
Joseph Stalin also appreciated the car speed. First he moved the capital to Vauxhall, inherited from Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. Then he got a 12-cylinder Packard Twin Six with a canvas roof.
When the power was in the hands of Stalin, he gave the order to release from the ocean party Cadillac, Buick, Lincoln and Packard. The last was meant to Joseph Stalin. And in 1935, the American Ambassador handed him a gift from U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt — an armored Packard Twelve. This car became a favorite of the father of Nations. In it, he came and at the Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam conferences. From behind the Windows of the limo he looked at the defeated Berlin.
As you know, Stalin ordered the Leningrad factory Red Putilovets to create a car, taking a sample of Buick-30−90. But… the model of Leningrad-1 was not successful. So it took the plant named after Stalin. It was the ZIS-101 luxury class car. Then there was the ZIS-110. And his special model for a leader — ZIS-115.
Catch-up with US
Like its predecessor, Nikita Khrushchev doted in the creations of the American automobile industry. Still early in his career, when he served as the first Secretary of the Communist party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine, Khrushchev drove his 12-cylinder Lincoln Zephyr. When the war ended, he received a Cadillac Fleetwood. By the way, this car was produced from the stakes of Hitler near Vinnitsa.
However, when it came to formal events, Khrushchev came to “one hundred ten” the ZIS. Interestingly, after the increase, Khrushchev took with him to Moscow Cadillac Fleetwood. However, then he got rid of him.
In the capital, Nikita went either “one hundred ten” or “hundred-and-fifteenth” of the VMS. But in 1955 at the Geneva conference he saw a “Chrysler” Dwight D. Eisenhower. This car it was unpleasantly surprised, because the background of domestic Abstracts looked antediluvian. Soviet engineers were given the task to create something similar. So there was the ZIL-111. And his “Muse” was Packard Сaribbean.
ZIL could not become a trendsetter. To blame Lincoln Continental, which was traveling JFK. Again the task was to catch up. But “catch up and overtake America” did not work. Although, to his credit, the ZIL-111 was at that time quite modern car. In this game of catch-up with the United States decided to stop.
“Wheels” for Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev was an avid motorist. He started with Buick 90 Limited. And by the end of the life of the Secretary General of the owned fleet, numbering about fifty different cars. By the way, there were not only cars, but also the creation of the domestic automobile industry. The main star of the collection was considered a 6-door Pullman Mercedes-Benz. Then, this “German” was considered the best of the best.
In addition, the garage Brezhnev were: Maserati Quattroporte, Cadillac Eldorado, Lincoln Continental, Nissan President, Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow and many other cars. It is noteworthy that almost all of them gifts. For example, Queen Elizabeth II and President Richard Nixon.
Besides cars, Brezhnev loved hunting. So specially for him at the Gorky automobile plant was created several four-wheel drive GAZ-24−95. The sedan was implanted, the transmission of the “four hundred and sixty-ninth” Oise. The car was comfortable and passable.
Gorbachev and the new time
Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko in power have been too little, and therefore any special car to get did not.
When the reins passed to Mikhail Gorbachev, he got the ZIL-41047. The same vehicle is subsequently moved to Boris Yeltsin.
In the Gorbachev period was created and last Soviet limousine ZIL — 4102. This car differed a monocoque body and fully independent suspension. After the new domestic models of a representation class is no longer produced. In an era of change was not up to them, and at first role out the Mercedes-Benz S-class.